The Modulating Action of ACP1 Genetic Polymorphism on the Effect of Smoking upon Birth Weight

Neri A, Gloria-Bottini F, Coppeta L, Renzetti G, M

Objectives: In a previous paper we have reported that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is modulated by the activity of maternal cytosolic Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phospatase (cLMWPTP), an enzyme encoded by Acid Phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1). We have now examined (i) the effect of newborn cLMWPTP and (ii) and the effect of maternal age on the action of maternal cLMWPTP Material and Methods: The data on 341 healthy puerperae and their newborn babies from the population of Penne have been re-examined. Results: In smoking mothers, newborn babies with Low cLMWPTP enzymatic activity have a high risk of low birth weight. There is a significant correlation of birth weight with total neonatal cLMWPTP activity and with F isoform concentration but not with S isoform concentration This effect is similar to that observed for maternal cLMWPTP activity. In smoking mothers, the action of maternal cLMWPTP on the relationship between smoking and birth weight is present in mothers aging more than 28 years only and it is lacking in smoking mothers aging 28 years or less. Discussion: The effects observed could be related to interactions between toxic substances of cigarette smoking and cLMWPTP: low enzymatic activity could be less efficient in the detoxification of damaging substances from cigarette smoking. On the other hand, these substances could contribute to inactivate cLMWPTP resulting in negative metabolic and immunological effects depending on ACP1 genotype. Olders Smoking women could experience a cumulative effect of toxic substances from cigarette smoking that aggravate the damage of smoking on intrauterine growth. This could result in a more evident effect of cLMWPTP upon clinical manifestation in these women. Conclusions: We suggest that also the action of other toxic environmental substances could be modulated by the activity of cLMWPTP with important effects on the risk of overt clinical manifestations.

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